Basic News Literacy to Combat Fake News

The phrase “fake news” has entered American lingo with the same force as the person who proliferated it took over the Republican party in 2016. Google Trends shows that the term had an exaggerated spike in search frequency starting in October 2016 with the peak of the search term occurring in February 2017. While the frequency has never reached the climax it did in February 2017, the search frequency is still significantly more elevated since 45 began his campaign for the presidency than anytime before that.

The increased search frequency of fake news online appears to play out in reality as well. It seems that when people of different ideologies have a disagreement, evidence presented by one party will be called “fake news” by the disagreeing party.  Or more commonly, people will label statements as “fake news” if they personally don’t agree with the statement, regardless of the facts surrounding what was said.

The phrase has been referred to as a phenomenon. It has been studied by MIT, the results of which were published in Science magazine and reported in The Atlantic. It has prompted leading universities such as Penn State, University of Michigan, University of California – Santa Barbara and even Harvard University to either post an article or dedicate several pages of their websites to defining, understanding and, basically, fighting against the spread of fake news. Even news distributors such as Huff Post and Fox News have either dedicated pages or aired segments of their website to “Fake News.”

What impact does this have on society? The proliferation of the dissemination of false and misleading information begets the requirement of being news literate. Being able to discern between biased and flagrantly incorrect data is the key to accurately understanding the world around us and the events that take place within it. The following steps will help begin the journey towards news literacy.

    • The first step is to understand what defines fake news. The University of Michigan provides a thorough definition. Essentially, its complicated and the linked guide categorizes 7 types of misinformation. Review the characteristics of each type and actively look to find them in your online travels.
    • Get your emotions in check. Remember that articles are purposefully crafted to evoke an emotional response to throw off the reader’s logical thinking. Many times, the inflammatory title has little to do with the story. Let your emotions flair, then let them go and look for the facts.
    • Ask questions! Almost any credible fake news guide available will undoubtedly advise to ask questions. This fake news guide from Harvard University provides some excellent questions to start asking when reading online content.
    • Seek independent unbiased news sources. Tall order. I know. But there are some out there:
      • First and foremost is the trusted C-SPAN.  It broadcasts live from the floors of Congress.  A great activity is to actually watch what happens in government and C-SPAN and then watch how the media reports on it.
      • Another independent news source, though it focuses on news local to NJ, is NJ Spotlight. This news service provides daily coverage of events in Trenton in a way that doesn’t focus on the partisan aspect of politics, but instead the facts. Very refreshing. They also host round tables and panels with local officials and moderate political debates.
      • NPR can be trusted for producing high quality content. They are an independent and non profit media company that provides written articles, radio programs, podcasts and live events.
      • Reuters proclaims on its about page to operate on the principals of independence, integrity and freedom of bias. This is an excellent source to search a particular topic after reading an inflammatory article.
    • Sometimes, not sharing is caring. One basic rule of thumb, which we have all broken at least once or twice in our lives, is do not share anything out of outrage or anger.  It’s okay to be outraged; its okay to feel anger. However, as mentioned previously, some articles are designed to make you angry. Its important to do due diligence prior to sharing the possible fake news content.

Being prepared to deal with the onslaught of content, information and opinions people face each day requires a skill that can be easily acquired if one gives a concerted effort. Try to consciously practice one technique at a time until it becomes second nature.

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Meet the Author/Motivational Speaker

This week, I had the pleasure and privilege to speak with self-published author, motivational speaker and philanthropist Edison Jaquez via email.   We discussed his upcoming book, Turning a Mess into a Message (release date: July 15, 2018), what motivates him to give back and in what direction will he take his next steps.

Leigh: So, this is your second book, how does this second accomplishment make you feel?

Edison: First of all I want to say thank you for interviewing me and for all the great work you’re doing. It still hasn’t hit me like I know it will but I feel blessed and like I’m living in my purpose with this second book.

Leigh: You are very welcome! Thank you! What would you say was your motivation to write the book?

Edison: The motivation behind writing this book came from the love I have for helping others find their purpose in life and teaching them to never give up on their dreams no matter what obstacles life throws at you.

Leigh: So would you say your purpose is helping others find their purpose, especially through adversity?

Edison: Yes, I believe I was allowed to face different challenges in life so that I would be able to identify with others and encourage them along their journey.

Leigh: Who do you hope this book reaches?

Edison: I hope it reaches everyone from all different races, gender, backgrounds etc.

Leigh: I think it has the potential to; it seems the purpose is to motivate anyone, whether one with serious legal problems, or one who simply needs help getting back up after rejection to not give up. Great topic! In what way do you hope to inspire your readers?

Edison: By sharing my struggles and success in this book, I hope it inspires people to go after their dreams and never give up!  I hope to be the motivation my readers need to take their life to the next level.

Leigh: The book’s title is “Turning a Mess into a Message,” what would you say is the main difference between the Edison then, that was a “mess,” and the Edison now that brings a positive Message to people?

Edison: This is a great question! I would say the Edison then would always try to please everyone and didn’t fully believe in himself. Pride often got the best of me until I learned to humble myself. The Edison now puts God first, continues to build self confidence and understands nothing happens overnight.

Leigh: So you have gained the confidence to keep going no matter what and trust your decisions? That is pretty powerful! Congrats! Who would you say helped you the most with your transformation to an inspirational figure?

Edison: Of course God 1st, second my family- my wife Jennifer, my kids Armani and Jacob, my mentors and friends.

Leigh: That’s great! It reminds me of the phrase, “It takes a village….”  While reflecting on your past to write this book, were there any lessons learned that perhaps escaped you while you were living through the situations discussed in the book?

Edison: Yes, there were many lessons. I wish I took the advice of those who saw the best in me and made better choices.

Leigh: Did you ever imagine when you were younger that you would be the author of two books? How do these accomplishments make you feel, looking back?

Edison: I never imagined being the influential person I am now. If you would have asked me back in the day I would have said, “No, not me”. These accomplishments make me feel like I’m doing the right thing for the younger generation to follow, especially my kids. It also makes me feel good that I can be an inspiration to the older generation.

Leigh: Did you find the writing process to be cathartic? Would you recommend writing to anyone going through a tough time?

Edison: Yes, I actually did. What I would say to anyone who desires to write a book is that it’s important to be honest with themselves before they decide to share their story with the world.
Leigh: Sometimes being honest with yourself can be the hardest. If you had the power to change your past, is there anything that you would change? Why or why not?

Edison: Honestly, I wouldn’t be the man I am today had it not been for my past but if I could change one thing I would say the pain and heartache I caused on my family.  

Leigh: Great answer! Sometimes adversity can be a good thing, in hindsight, of course. Now that the book is complete, what are your final thoughts?

Edison: I’m truly blessed and humbled by the outcome of this project. I truly feel this is by far my best work.

Leigh: That is great! And to think there is so much more to come. Speaking of which, what are your next steps as an author and motivational speaker/inspiration?

Edison: I’m working on my 3rd book which will be a children’s book that I’m very excited about.

Leigh: That is great news! You are turning into a serial author! You certainly don’t waste time!  Do you have any final thoughts you want to share?

Edison: I would say to everyone reading this interview to always believe in yourself and never never give up on your dreams!! Thank you.

Leigh: Thank you for spreading positivity  and thank you for your time today.
Clearly the goal of the book, and Edison’s work, is to motivate people to live their best self and to not give up on their dreams. He truly wants his readers and followers to learn life lessons from the mistakes that he made to save those people from the heartache. I hope this book reaches whomever needs it.

If you need a pick-me-up, or would like to learn how someone turned their life around from unthinkable circumstances to sky-high success, pickup Turn a Mess into a Message by Edison Jaquez.

Contact Edison and sign up for email updates including how to purchase his books and where and when is his next charity event.

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“Who Decides the News?” and Why it is Important for Readers to Understand This

Tragic news about the site moderator.

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Meet The College Professor/ Poet/ Youth Motivator Dr. Daniel Jean

Dr. Daniel Jean

When I first asked Dr. Jean if I can interview him for my blog, I asked because, after reading the timely lyrics he posts to his Facebook page, I thought someone who uses words so powerfully and beautifully should be featured on a literacy blog.  While I wanted to highlight Dr. Jean’s literacy genesis, his talents as a poet, and as someone who promotes literacy, I discovered someone with a much more powerful message than simply, “read 20 minutes a day.”
Dr. Jean not only promotes the belief that words travel, as evidenced by the organization he founded Wordstravel, but he has experienced this belief as he has traveled around the country performing his poetry.  Most interestingly, his words have traveled all the way to Ghana, where the Ghana Knowledge Tree Leadership Academy is building a library and naming it “The Wordstravel Library” after Dr. Jean’s movement.  Finally, through Dr. Jean, I am not only providing you a profile of a successful literary professional to look up to, but also a resource.  See his response when I asked him what advice he has for struggling readers.
Please take the time to read how Dr. Daniel Jean got his literacy start and what steps you can take to become an engaged reader and writer who positively impacts the world around you:
LWL: Who introduced you to reading?
DJ: I was introduced to reading by my older siblings who would read everything from books to cereal box labels. While I didn’t read with them, I saw them reading and perceived the value.
LWL: When did you start to like to read independently?
DJ: I struggled with reading comprehension until my eighth grade teacher Mrs. Richardson worked with me to focus better, underline key concepts and learn how to make the words come to life!
LWL: Did you prefer fiction or non fiction?
DJ: I prefer to read non fiction.
LWL: What were your favorite stories?
DJ: My favorite stories are true stories of individuals overcoming adversity. Soul on Ice and the autobiography of Malcolm X. Both stories highlighted how injustices and hatred can be overcome.
LWL: Who were your favorite authors?
DJ: I have so many. Edwidge Danticat is on of my favs and many of her stories are about my Haiti, my birthplace.
LWL: Where would you go to read?
DJ: I need to read in a quiet space.
LWL: Did you go to the library a lot?
DJ: They had a mobile library called the “Book Mobile” that would share books. I also frequent the library.
LWL: Did you have a lot of friends that you liked to read with?
DJ: I’ve never read with others.
LWL: Was reading something that was promoted in your community?
DJ: Reading was promoted by my community [which I define as my siblings and a few key teachers] but I met teachers who emphasized the importance of reading.
LWL: What motivated you to continue to read on your own, outside of school assignments?
DJ: I enjoyed reading and began writing poetry at a very early age. I have authored  a play entitled “Til Death Do Us Part?” and an anthology titled, “Wordstravel”.
LWL: Who introduced you to writing?
DJ: My Siblings.
LWL:  When did you start writing?
DJ: I have written poetry since my pre-teen years. My entire movement is based on the power of the word.
LWL: How did you use writing as a tool? (Diary, write stories, etc.)
DJ: I wrote poems for all occasions, parties, female friends, to address an injustice. I live by Ephesians 4:29 [ Do not let any unwholesome talk come out of your mouths, but only what is helpful for building others up according to their needs, that it may benefit those who listen.]
LWL: Where did you used to go to write when you were a kid?
DJ: I would write anywhere and on anything.
LWL: What motivated you to continue to write on your own, outside of school assignments? Where do you go to write now?
DJ: I write to empower and express myself. I like to write on my apple products now (laughs)
LWL: What other ways do you express yourself artistically?
DJ: I make music, perform poetry, and utilize it all during my interactive empowerment. Swagger Seminars.
LWL: How, do you think, your passion for reading and writing impacted where you are today?
DJ: Effective communication is the key to personal and professional success. Reading and writing are essential to communication.
LWL: What advice would you have for a reluctant reader?
DJ: I would encourage them to read things they enjoy….also if they struggle with reading comprehension to contact me at for assistance and encouragement.
LWL: What advice do you have for a struggling writer?
DJ: Wordstravel…..
LWL: How would you respond to the statement: “Books are a stupid waste of time, and so is writing about what you read in books.”
 DJ: I would love to meet the person who said that to help them fall in love with reading/writing like I have!
As you can see, Dr. Jean isn’t your ordinary literacy advocate.  He has given us his literary story, offered help for those who need it, recommended a Haitian author to look into, made a clear correlation as to why reading and writing is important and, in not so many words, showed that reading about over-coming injustice and hatred is the first step to over-coming injustice and hatred.  If you want to learn more about Dr. Jean, please visit his website

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Meet the Author: Novelist Armani Williams

Author Mr. Armani Williams

Recently, I was able to speak to the successful, self-published author Mr. Armani Williams, via telephone, about all things literacy.  This young, black, up-and-coming artist, who hails from East Orange, NJ, expounded on the genesis of his literacy, what books he enjoyed through his life and gave me, as only someone who loves to read can do, spontaneous text-to-self connections!  Most importantly, he explains how his love of literacy took him to where he is today and gives advice to children who may be struggling with reading and writing.
LWL: Who introduced you to reading?
AW: My mother! She was very adamant about my sister and I learning to read.  Besides being read to by my mother and, sometimes sister, frequently, books were just always a fixture in our home.  My older sister, who is six years older, had a lot of books that were eventually handed down to me. Books were always in the house and a part of my life.
LWL: Where did you go to read?
AW: My mom took us to the library every two weeks- no questions asked. She made sure we read all the books before we had to return them. I actually have a funny story about that.  There was this one book from the library that I eventually turned in -although past the due date.  I absolutely loved Sesame Street as a child and there was this story called Follow That Bird.  It was a movie and a book. It was a story about Big Bird having to leave Sesame Street to live with other birds. Well one day I took the book home and I loved it so much, that I didn’t return the book until SEVEN years later.  I dropped the book in the drop box to have some level of anonymity.
LWL: Wow.  You seem to have really connected with the story.  Maybe you were looking for other birds like yourself at that age? Did you have any other favorite stories?
AW: Yes.  I was happy to find books and read stories that had little black kids in it.  There is one story, One Snowy Day by Ezra Jack Keats.  My mom liked reading it to me and I liked reading it too.  Sometimes I think I may have related to the book because there is a little black boy in the story with a red snow suit on and, at the time, I had a red snow suit so sometimes I think I saw myself in the book.  I think my mom made that connection too.  I also discovered, Ms. Nelson is Missing by Harry Alard in the first grade.  I enjoyed the story of the book, but I also lived through that scenario in third grade.
In third grade I had a teacher named Ms. Scott.  She was a very nice woman and no one in my class was mean to her.  It was just that as a young gifted-and-talented group, we would talk a lot.  Usually about our work, but we couldn’t control our talking.  It turned out that Ms. Scott had gotten sick.  At first it started off with her taking a few days off, but by March Ms. Scott was on temporary leave and I got a new teacher.  My own personal Ms. Viola Swamp, except her name was Ms. Raikes.  Ms. Raikes was a very mean sub.  She would yell sometimes.  But as an older black lady, she just had a way of shutting down class conversations with the snap of a finger.  It wasn’t just that she was strict, she was old and crotchety too.  She gave a lot of homework and classwork to ensure there was no time for joking, laughing or talking.  There was no bonding with Ms. Swamp, I am sorry, I mean Ms. Raikes.  She was just mean as hell the whole time and I can not recall one positive memory with her in the four months she was my teacher.  In fact, Ms. Raikes’ name came up in a Facebook chat recently with friends and even though it is years later, I mean these people are already graduated from college, my friends still got the chills at the sound of her name.
LWL: Did you have friends you would read with?
AW: Not really. Boys were more playing Mortal Combat or X-Men than reading.  I remember one time, my Dad bought me a guidebook for Sega Genesis that had all the cheat codes in it.  That day I was surrounded by the boys all stretching their necks to see the cheat codes.  I felt really popular that day!
LWL: Who introduced you to writing?
AW: At 10 years old I took a class at the Newark Community School of the Arts. The man teaching the class was a college professor. He announced that we weren’t going to act, but write plays.  My initial thought was I didn’t know how to write never mind  how to write a whole play. The idea was so far fetched for me at the time. That night I went home and thought of a concept of a woman who was married and pregnant with a drug problem and wanted to get off drugs to be a good mom.  I have no idea where I got this idea, or why at 10 years old I was thinking about these things, but that night I wrote my first play.  It was then that I realized I was a writer.  From that point I just wrote more pieces. My professor’s name was Professor Stuart, but I haven’t seen him since 1995, when I took the class.  He doesn’t know it, but I dedicated my first book to him.
LWL: What motivated you to continue to read on your own, outside of school assignments?
AW: I just enjoyed it. I liked reading about complexities of life. I came from a household of celebrating being black. We read about up-slinging African-American people, college educated people with careers.
LWL: How did you use writing as a tool? (Diary, write stories, etc.)
AW: I enjoyed the art of story telling. I wrote poems that told stories that expressed feelings. I liked to tell stories of the human condition and about  people dealing with life as it happens to us all.
LWL: How, do you think, your passion for reading and writing impacted where you are today?
AW: Discovering reading and writing made me realize I was put on this earth to be a writer!
LWL: What advice would you have for a reluctant reader?
AW: Just try it and find something you enjoy. If you don’t know what to read, ask somebody; specifically your school or town librarian, they seem to know everything.
LWL: What advice do you have for a struggling writer?
AW: Never rush the creative process, it will come when it comes.  Read other things in the mean time!! When I sat down to write a book, I wrote it better because I read something else prior to writing. Not that I stole ideas, it just inspires you to create.  People write from their experience, including what they read.  By exposing yourself to more written work, you are giving yourself more experiences to think about before writing.
LWL: How would you respond to the statement: “Books are a stupid waste of time, and so is writing about what you read in books.”
AW: Everyone’s got opinions. I would never tell someone they were wrong, I just hope that they would change their mind.

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Better Your Writing: Step 3 Map out the Topic – Outline

So, for the past couple weeks you have been writing to your heart’s content and at the same time exponentially increasing your terminology for everything in your environment.  Awesome!  I am sure you have strung together sentences with words you never imagined you can join. And I hope you continue to let that writing fire burn.

However, now it is time to switch gears from using the creative right side of your brain to the more logical left side of your brain– but don’t worry, your creative self will still need to make an appearance every now and again.

The first action you want to take is to look through your journal and decide which entry inspires you the most, or fills you with passion, rage, bewilderment, etc.  The more emotion you feel, the more likely you will have something to say.  Now try to peer at your page with more “logical” eyes and answer the following question.  What is this entry about?  What do I want to say about this topic?  Did I already give examples for my point in my journal?  Are there more examples I want to add? Who will care about this? What is the purpose of this writing? (Do you want to give your opinion, educate or persuade the audience?)

After answering these questions, you should have enough information to quickly plan the basic information that will be included in your introduction paragraph, and body paragraphs (one body paragraph for each example provided).  To quickly plan your your basic information, create a graphic organizer:

On the top of one page draw a large rectangle and label it, “Introduction”.   Inside the rectangle, write what your topic is and why it is important or what your call to action, argument or opinion is.

In the middle of your paper, draw a second large rectangle and label it, “Body Paragraphs”.   Number each piece of evidence you have as you list it in the body paragraphs box.  Each piece of evidence will be the focus of that body paragraph.

The purpose of this is to simply serve as a road map while you are writing your paper. You may still need to do more research to find the answers you need to make your argument compelling.  Once all of this information is collected you can begin fully drafting.  In the meantime, you can use your graphic organizer as a guide for what research needs to be done.

Good Luck!!

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Better Your Writing: Step 2 Build Your Vocabulary

What makes for effective writing is the combination of a well thought out point with an attention-grabbing delivery.  Sentence variety plays a major role in that and one of the many ways to create a variety of sentences is to include a broad sampling of vocabulary.  The best way to obtain the knowledge of a broad sampling of vocabulary is to make a conscience effort to learn and incorporate new words into your daily speech.  There are several strategies to go about accomplishing this:

  1. Start with what you know.   Find synonyms to replace words you already use on a daily basis.  To do this for free, simply go to and search for words you use regularly. For example, I looked up the word “argue” and found this list:   Now instead of saying, “Kids, don’t argue with each other.” I am going to say , “Kids don’t contend with each other.”   I feel smarter already.  For those with a little to “invest” in vocabulary expansion, there is software available and rated on
  2. Be proactive when you don’t understand. When you are reading or listening to something new and you see or hear a word you don’t understand, be sure to make a note of it in your journal or reading log.  Before looking up the word, try to figure out what the word is referring to in the way it is used in the sentence.  Once you have meditated on the possible meaning, look it up and compare how close or far off you were from figuring it out.
  3. Compare word meanings. Sometimes the same word can be used to mean different things.  Familiarize yourself with all of the definitions of a particular word and be sure to use them in speech or writing.

All of this may seem very time consuming, but the truth of the matter is activities like this shouldn’t take more than 5 minutes a day and should be incorporated into any time you set aside for yourself to read and write.

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Better Your Writing: Step 1 Journal Writing

In my last post, I left off with challenging my readers to purposefully work on building their writing skills.  But then it dawned on me that perhaps I should clue you in on the steps you can take to become a better writer.  The first tip I would like to share, in all honesty, has been repeated by English teachers and writing coaches a like for many years.  And even though I would classify this as a cliche, if it were possible to classify actions as cliches the way one would an over-used phrase, I still think this activity is the number one way to get your writing juices flowing and therefore build on your writing skills. This number one activity is: keeping a journal.

This is not the “Dear Diary” of your younger years where you reveal your crush or some other deep secret that would be horrifying to make known to anyone else but your diary -though it could be used for that purpose if you wish.  You want to use this journal to explore all things that inspire you to think.  Did you just read something in the local newspaper that irritates you? Write about it.  Did you just watch your child play with other children and it reminded you of a time when you were younger?  Explore the memory in your journal.  Did you just read something in a novel that reminded you of something that happens in your life?  Investigate the connection in your journal.  Don’t have any thoughts fighting their way out of your mind? Simply take some time to free write and let your stream of consciousness take over.  What does that mean?  It means to simply write down what is coming to your mind, whether it makes sense or not.  For example:

The road we took to get here was so bumpy.  It kind of reminded me of the way you bump through El Torro at Great Adventure.  I wonder what kind of safety measures they take to make it safe.  They have a lot of rides, that is a lot of safety measures!  How many people would they need to inspect all the rides?  Is there some sort of national council on ride safety measures?  Do all ride safety measure workers have to be certified?  Do they pay for the certification or does their company pay for it?   How would you even break into a field like this. Some fields aren’t easy to break into.  My uncle waited for 3 years to get called into the electrical union, IBEW.  Electrician is a high demand.  I wonder what other jobs are in high demand?

As you can see, my main concern when I was writing the preceding paragraph was that I was getting out the ideas in my head.  I have punctuation, pronoun and subject-verb agreement errors through out the paragraph.  But, in stream of consciousness and journal writing, the adherence to grammar rules in not the main concern.  Just focus on letting your thoughts out.

Rules of Journal Writing:

  1. Spend at least 10 minutes a day 2-3 times a week.  Obviously the more practice you have the better you will get, but you don’t want writing to become a chore for you at the same time.  Do what is comfortable for you, but this basic amount of writing will get you on the right track.
  2. Just like when you are writing with your stream of consciousness, don’t worry about grammar.
  3. The purpose of journal writing is to explore your thoughts, but if you are having trouble coming up with something to write, start off using writing prompts. (Some examples are listed below.)  Eventually, if you keep at it, you won’t need prompts.
  4. Don’t give up.  Once you start, stick with your writing schedule!
  5. Analyze.  After some time you will want to review everything you have written and take notice of your improvement.  Are your sentences getting longer? Are you entries getting longer?  Are you  producing more thoughts? Are your thoughts going deeper than scratching surface topics? Do you find yourself writing for a longer period of time than you schedule?  Have you come up with solutions to problems?  Take the time to notice where you have improved.
  6. Congratulate yourself on a job well done.  Through your own sheer drive and determination, you took the steps necessary to better your writing skills, by yourself.

Writing Prompts:

  • “The three best things that happened to me today?”
  • “The three things I encountered today that I didn’t like and my solutions to change them”
  • “Today I am happy because…”
  • “Today I am angry because….”
  • “Where is a ____ when you need it?”
  • “I really wanted to _____ but I changed my mind.”

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Chapter 13

How does the author describe Lincoln’s night before?

Which players did Lincoln hangout with after the game? Where did they go?

Why do you think Tony was quiet at first?

What did Tony tell Lincoln about the TV from the thrift shop?  Based on this, do you think Tony was ever rally mad at Lincoln?

What plans did Lincoln and Tony make?

How did the phone call go with Monica?

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Chapter 12

What was Lincoln trying to communicate to his mom? Was he successful?

Why did Lincoln carry a framed picture with him from the bathroom to the kitchen?

What did Bukouski address Lincoln about?

Why did Lincoln say what he said originally?

How did their argument end?

Did his knee hurt when he practiced?

Who did Lincoln see on the Franklin side?

Which team possessed the ball first?

Who was Lincoln looking at on the Franklin side, instead of watching the game?

What happened to Bukowski in the game?

Did Lincoln find Monica in the crowd? Who was she with?

How did the second half start for Lincoln?

“…feeling giddy because he was now understanding that he was a Franklin boy beneath a Columbus uniform.”  Why is this sentence and the paragraph the follows it, an important discovery for Lincoln?

Lincoln was going to play for himself, not school pride…” Who did Lincoln “take sides” with?

Who won the game? What was the score?

Did Tony and Lincoln make up?

What was said during the conversation between Mr. Kimball and Coach Yesutis?

What happened when Coach Yesutis grabbed Lincoln hard by the arm?

Did James communicate with Monica?

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